Understanding the Power of Force Majeure Clause in India: Navigating Unforeseen Circumstances

    Posted on 6 June, 2023 by ANOOPA TIWARI

    Understanding the Power of Force Majeure Clause in India: Navigating Unforeseen Circumstances


    In a world full of uncertainties, it is essential for businesses to protect themselves from unforeseen events that may disrupt their operations. This is where the force majeure clause comes into play. A force majeure clause is a contractual provision that allows parties to suspend or terminate their obligations when certain extraordinary events occur. In India, the force majeure clause has gained significant importance, especially in light of recent global challenges.With the sudden provocation of the Covid-19 pandemic and its worldly wide reach, force majeure emerged as the straw which almost every drowning businessman tried to clutch at . With its incorporation into contracts releasing parties from liability in the event of unavoidable catastrophes, that disrupt the expected course of events and prevent participants from championing their obligations, force majeure covered both natural disasters and man-made catastrophes.

    In this blog post, we will delve into the power of the force majeure clause and its implications in India


    The force majeure clause, derived from French law which translates to "superior force."  , is a contractual provision that allocates risk and liability between parties when unforeseen events occur that are beyond their control. It serves as a safety net, allowing parties to suspend or terminate their obligations temporarily or permanently, depending on the circumstances. Common force majeure events include natural disasters, acts of terrorism, governmental actions, epidemics, or any event deemed beyond the reasonable control of the parties..

    Interpretation of force majeure clauses can vary depending on jurisdiction and specific contract language. Some jurisdictions have specific statutory definitions, while others rely on common law principles. Courts generally apply a strict interpretation, requiring a direct link between the force majeure event and the party's inability to perform. The burden of proof lies with the party seeking to invoke the clause.

    In India, the force majeure clause is a critical aspect of commercial contracts. It provides parties with a legal framework to address unforeseen events that may hinder their ability to perform contractual duties varying from contract to contract, depending on the negotiations between the parties involved. More importantly,when a force majeure event occurs, the affected party must notify the other party promptly.Timely communication is essential to preserve rights and minimize disputes. Additionally, parties are often obligated to take reasonable steps to mitigate the impact of the event, such as seeking alternative sources or methods to fulfill their obligations. The party seeking to invoke the force majeure clause must provide evidence demonstrating that the event has made performance impossible or commercially impracticable.

    Once a force majeure event is successfully invoked, the contractual obligations of the affected party are temporarily suspended or, in some cases, terminated altogether. This relieves the parties from potential liability for non-performance or delays caused by the event. However, it is crucial to review the specific terms and conditions outlined in the contract to understand the consequences of a force majeure event accurately.

     In India, When it comes to business contracts where various industries face unique challenges, the force majeure clause has been invoked in several real cases, shaping the landscape of contractual obligations.

    1.  COVID-19 Pandemic and Construction Industry:

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the construction industry in India. In a case, a construction company invoked the force majeure clause due to government-imposed lockdowns and supply chain disruptions. The court recognized the pandemic as a force majeure event, enabling the contractor to claim an extension of time and relief from penalties for project delays.

    1. Natural Calamities and Power Purchase Agreements:

    India frequently witnesses natural calamities, such as cyclones and floods, which can disrupt power generation and distribution.In the landmark case of Energy Watchdog v. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC), 2017, the Supreme Court of India examined the force majeure clause in power purchase agreements (PPAs) related to the distribution of electricity and held that an increase in the price of coal due to an Indonesian regulation change constituted a force majeure event, allowing the affected parties to claim relief from performance. This case established that changes in law or regulations could trigger the force majeure clause.

    1. Political Unrest and Hospitality Sector:

    Political unrest can significantly impact the hospitality sector in India. In a notable case , the Delhi High Court examined force majeure in the hospitality industry. The court recognized that the outbreak of H1N1 influenza (Swine flu) constituted a force majeure event. It held that the closure of hotels during the outbreak was a reasonable consequence of the event, relieving the hotel from liability for non-performance.

    1. Changes in Law and Manufacturing Agreements:

    Changes in government regulations and laws can have far-reaching implications for businesses. In a manufacturing agreement case, a company invoked the force majeure clause when new environmental regulations made it impossible for them to comply with the contractual obligations. The court accepted the force majeure claim, acknowledging that changes in law constituted a force majeure event, excusing the company from performance.

    1. Global Supply Chain Disruptions and Trade Contracts:

    Disruptions in the global supply chain can impact trade contracts and logistics. In a case, an importer invoked the force majeure clause due to port closures and shipping delays caused by a labor strike. The court recognized the force majeure claim, allowing the importer to suspend its obligations until the shipping situation normalized.

    But there are specific circumstances that may render a force majeure claim not maintainable based on the jurisdiction and the terms of the contract, there are some general situations where a force majeure claim may not be upheld. These situations can include:


    1. Failure to satisfy the force majeure clause's requirements: Ifthe party attempts to invoke the clause's provisions—such as giving timely notice or establishing a direct connection between the force majeure event and their inability to perform and satisfy the clause's specific requirements, their claim may not be upheld.
    2. Foreseeability of the events: A party may not be able to successfully invoke force majeure if the event that led to non-performance was reasonably foreseeable at the time the contract was signed or could have been mitigated or prevented. For instance, if the builder know that there was shortage of water in that area and still signed the contract, then he cannot claim the force majeure on not being able to complete it 
    3. Contractual risk allocation: The party requesting the use of force majeure may be held liable for upholding any contractual obligations, such as indemnification clauses or alternate performance obligations, if the contract contains specific provisions dividing the risk of the force majeure event between the parties.
    4. Exhaustion of contractual remedies: If the contract specifies alternative remedies or procedures to address unforeseen events, such as renegotiation, arbitration, or specific dispute resolution mechanisms, the party must exhaust those remedies before seeking to invoke force majeure.


    Real cases from India demonstrate the power and relevance of the force majeure clause in navigating unforeseen circumstances. From the COVID-19 pandemic to natural calamities, political unrest, changes in law, and supply chain disruptions, businesses across various sectors have successfully relied on force majeure clauses to protect their interests. These cases highlight the importance of carefully negotiating and drafting force majeure provisions in contracts to account for specific risks and uncertainties.But the determination of whether a force majeure claim is maintainable is highly dependent on the specific circumstances, the language of the contract, and the applicable laws and regulations of the jurisdiction in question. Byharnessing the force majeure clause effectively, businesses can mitigate potential risks and ensure smoother operations in the face of unforeseen events.

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    Tags: force majeure in india, force majeure applicabilty




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